Qing Liu, Chao Zhang, Dong-gang Xu*
1Institute of Military Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Beijing, 100850, PR China
*Corresponding author: Dong-gang Xu, Institute of Military Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Beijing, Tel: +86-010-66931329; E-mail: [email protected]
Received: September 13, 2021
Published: October 27, 2021
As a unique secretary product of Caulobacter crescentus, holdfast is the most powerful natural viscous substance known so far, and its detailed synthetic mechanism is still not clear. The biosynthetic process of holdfast is complex, including the synthesis, transportation and secretion of monosaccharides and polysaccharides, as well as the various modifications in each above-mentioned step. Many genes related to the sugar metabolism, the synthesis and modification of proteins, the modification of polysaccharides, the transportation and the secretion of polymer are involved in this process. In addition, the production of holdfast is also affected by cell cycle and stress. This review focuses on the recent advances in the study on the physicochemical property, transportation, secretion and modification of holdfast, as well as its synthetic pathways. The complex associations of genes involved in holdfast biosynthesis are also summarized, which helps deepen the understanding of its biosynthetic mechanism, thus gives the guidance on the future research and development of holdfast.
KEYWORDS: Holdfast; Caulobacter crescentus; Biosynthesis; Deacetylation; Transportation and Secretion